Total Knee Replacement Surgery

Knee Joint replacement surgery abroad – JCI accredited Orthopedic Hospital

A knee surgery or knee arthroplasty;  is a surgical procedure where the damaged knee joint is replaced with artificial materials. The surgery may be considered if other treatments are no longer working, the knee is stiff and painful and normal activities are no longer possible. The cause for knee diseases can be: Osteoarthritis, Osteotomy arthritis (bow leg or x leg), rheumatic disease, infection, trauma or other rare diseases of the joint.

A total knee replacement takes up to 2 hours. The surgery will be performed under general anesthesia.

How a knee knee joint replacement surgery been performed


1.) 2.) The kneecap (partella) is moved to the side to reach the joint.

3.) 4. ) The worn or damaged pieces will be removed from the surface of the thigh bone and the surfaces of the shin bone. The bone surfaces are then shaped to fit the artificial knee joint

5.)  6.) The artificial joint is attached to thigh bone, shin and knee cap with cement or other special material. Sometimes the back of the patella is replaced with a plastic part. After the new joint is fitted, the cut is closed with stitches or clips.

Preparation before knee surgery

A preparation is recommended at least one month before surgery. The patients should carry out specific exercises in order to strengthen the hips and ankles. Tests are done; including a complete blood count, APIT and PT to measure blood clotting, chest x-rays and ECG. The patient may be prescribed iron supplements to boost the hemoglobin. Medication such as Aspirin will be stopped to reduce the amount of the bleeding while having surgery.
The structure of the knee joint is a junction of three bones. The thigh bone (upper leg) called femur and the shinbone (lower leg) called tibia meet to form a hinge joint. The knee cap called patella sits over the other bones and moves. On the end of each bone are articular cartilages to cushion the joint. There are two c shaped pads of cartilage called menisci to pad the knee. There is a lateral and a medial meniscus. The ligaments are strong elastic bands that are connected from one bone to the other and helping to stabilize the knee. Two groups of muscles (one in front one in the back) work to straighten and flex the knee.

Knee replacement recovery times

After Knee Surgery the hospital stay will generally be 3 – 5 days. Most people who undergo the knee joint replacement have dramatic improvement after one month. At first the patient may need some walking help devices such as crutches, walker or cane. Most people are walking comfortably after 6 weeks.
Side-effects may be, feeling sick as a result of the general anesthetic. The knee may be swollen for up to three month. A visible scar on top of the knee.
Partial knee resurfacing is an option for those patients who seek a more conservative alternative to total knee replacement.  A partial knee procedure refers to a surgery designed to treat just one or two compartments in a knee, a possibility when osteoarthritis is not present in all three compartments.

Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for total knee replacement is a new technique that

allows the orthopedics to insert new reliable knee replacement implants through a shorter incision only 3 -4 inches (7cm – 10 cm) . This new technique avoids trauma to the quadriceps muscle which is the most important one around the knee. A shorter recovery time and less traumatic surgery also may decrease post operative pain and lessen the need for rehab and therapy compared to more traditional approaches.

Knee arthritis

Osteoarthritis is a major problem for many people. It is sometimes referred to as degenerative, wear and tear arthritis. Osteoarthritis usually affects the knee joint. Our Orthopaedist specialists have many ways for treatment, so patients have less pain, better movement and improve quality of life.

Anatomically it is the degeneration of the articular cartilage which is the lining that covers the ends of the bones where they meet the knee bone. When the articular cartilage disintegrates the bone underneath is uncovered and rubs against bone.
Knee Arthritis can be caused by an injury earlier in life, repeated strain, wear and tear and genetics and being overweight. The symptoms are usually pain, swelling and stiffening of the knee. The diagnosis of Osteoarthritis can usually be made on the basis of the initial history and examination. X-rays can help in the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) may be ordered to look at the knee closely. The MRI scan shows the bones, ligaments, cartilage and menisci. If the diagnosis is still unclear arthroscopy may be necessary to actually look inside the knee. Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure in which a small optic TV camera is inserted into the knee joint through a very small incision.


  • Medication
  • Anti-inflammatory medication and pain killer.
  • Medical studies have shown that glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate can also help. These supplements have nearly the same benefits as anti-inflammatory medicine with fewer side effects like stomach upsets.
  • Cortisone injection may be given.
  • A new kind of injection has become available called Hyaluronic acid.  Patients have had good results for up to eight months after getting this treatment.
  • Physical Therapy
    The Therapist will teach you how to calm pain and symptoms, including the use of rest, heat or topical rubs.


In cases of advanced Osteoarthritis surgery may be necessary.
The Orthopedist can use an arthroscopy procedure to look at the condition of the articular cartilage. The specialist can also clean the joint by removing loose fragments of cartilage.
A burring tool may be used to roughen spots on the cartilage that are badly worn. This procedure is often helpful for temporary relief of symptoms for up to two years.

Proximal Tibial Osteotomy

Osteotomy arthritis affects the inside of the knee which can lead to a deformation of the knee. The strain and pressure leads to more pain and rapid degeneration where the cartilage is squeezed together. The goal of the operation is to realign the angles of the lower leg and to shift the pressure to the healthier side of the knee.
The normal procedure is to realign the angels of the lower leg. The upper part of the shinbone is cut and the angel of the joint is changed. A proper joint angle actually allows the cartilage to regenerate. The benefit to this method is that very active people still have their own knee joint and there are no restrictions on activities after the bones are healed.
This operation is buying some time before a total knee replacement is necessary. Under best circumstances the operation lasts five to seven years.
An artificial knee replacement is the ultimate solution for advanced knee Osteoarthritis.


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